What are some important aspects of psychosocial development that occur in children between the ages of 2 and 5 years, and what influences this development? There is

Human Relationships and Life Transitions Essay Word limit: 1200 words APA Style of writing References: You are required to include a minimum of five recent references (2014 onward), including two peer-reviewed journal articles, to support your discussion. Please note that you can use literature written within the last ten years (2009–2019), as long as you include at least five references that are published within the last five years (2014–2019). Assignment details: One important way that infants and young children learn about their world is through their psychosocial development. Throughout the unit, you will examine psychological, social (psychosocial), cognitive and moral components of human development, and understand the relationship of these to the shaping of an individual’s self-concept. Commencing in infancy with attachment to parents and caregivers, psychosocial development, according to Erikson (in Hoffnung et al., 2016), continues throughout the lifespan and involves interactions with caregivers, peers, educators, and the wider social context. This development may be influenced by a variety of normative (expected) and non-normative (deviations from usual) events or circumstances which influence infant and early childhood development (Hoffnung et al., 2016). Scenario: Andrew, aged two and a half years, is attending day care three days a week for five hours each day while his mother Maria works part-time. Maria states that Andrew is speaking in four to five word sentences and communicating his needs well. Andrew ’s father, Tom, is a full-time shift worker and he cares for Andrew regularly on his two days off each week. Maria explains that Andrew enjoys music, dancing and singing ‘silly’ songs with his Dad, herself and their large extended family. Andrew is Maria’s first child, and she is concerned that her son is not yet toilet trained during the day or night, especially since she has noticed that other children in day care seem to have mastered this skill during the day. Maria also has questions in relation to healthy eating and active play for Andrew, and the benefits of child care and play groups. The Child and Family Health Nurse has reassured Maria that Andrew is meeting all his developmental milestones and will soon gain daytime continence by the time he is three years old, or soon after. The nurse has also educated Maria on healthy eating patterns and active play. The nurse has referred Maria to a mother’s group in her local area to discuss strategies for toilet training in a relaxed, informal environment with other parents. Essay topic: Drawing on relevant nursing and psychosocial science literature, and using at least two examples from the scenario, write an essay on the following topic: What are some important aspects of psychosocial development that occur in children between the ages of 2 and 5 years, and what influences this development? There is supporting reference that you can use at the end of this document. Thanks so much  Have a great day 
Assignment criteria: 1. Introduction: 1.1. Introduction identifies the developmental stage. 1.2. Introduction describes its importance in the lifespan (thesis statement). 1.3. Introduction previews the points to be covered in the essay. 1.4. If referencing is used in the introduction, it is appropriate and/or necessary. Note that referencing is not usually needed in introductions if global statements are used. 1.5. Conclusion summarises the main points and links back to the introduction and/or thesis statement. 2. Ability to identify and discuss the normative (usual) examples of psychosocial development for the age group: 2.1. Identifies and discusses the normative (usual) examples of psychosocial development for age group (2–5 years) with reference to the case study. 2.2. Draws on the work of a theorist(s) and applies knowledge to topic area with examples. 2.3. Discussion is fully supported by relevant literature. 2.4. Identifies two examples from the case study to inform discussion. 3. Ability to identify and describe influences on psychosocial development for the age-group: 3.1. Identifies and describes influences on psychosocial development. These may be normative (usual or standard events/circumstances), or non-normative (unusual events/circumstances) for the age group. 3.2. Draws on the work of a theorist(s) and applies knowledge to topic area discussed. 3.3. Explains the relevance of this information to nursing practice. 3.4. Discussion is fully supported by relevant literature. 4. Academic writing, clarity and referencing techniques: 4.1. Uses formal, non-discriminatory language. Sentences are well constructed—expression and meaning are clear. 4.2. Uses correct APA referencing conventions. Claims are supported appropriately, and sources are relevant to the task.
Introduce the developmental stage of the assessment and briefly outline the main examples which will be explored in your essay.
•Conforming to the elements of a good introduction, use global statements and no referencing will be required in the introduction. However, if you do use in-text referencing and it is appropriate, you will not be penalised if references are cited in the introduction.
•See elements of criterion 1: 12.5 marks allocated.
Describe/discuss what psychosocial development involves drawing on the work of a theorist. Explain two (or more) examples of psychosocial development from the case study.
•In your discussion, explain what psychosocial development is, its importance to development, and how it links to the age group provided in the case study.
•Provide two relevant examples from the case study for discussion.
•In your discussion of psychosocial development, refer to the work of at least one theorist (ormore) in your discussion. Relevant theorists include, but are not limited to;
 Erikson (psychosocial development)
 Vygotsky (sociocultural development)
 Bronfenbrenner (sociocultural development)
 Bandura (socio-cognitive development)
•Your discussion will outline what are normative transitions for the age group and provide relevant evidence-based literature in regards to addressing the needs of the develop mental issues in the case study. For example, you may wish to discuss engaging children with healthy eating patterns, active play, childcare, peer communication or some other aspect of what is normative for this age group. Alternatively, you may instead wish to discuss the normative transition of toilet training in building autonomy and/or peer interaction as building initiative, and include the age range in toddlers being able to gain full continence.
You might wish to explore the role of parenting, peers, childcare, socialisation, safety and/or another aspect of psychosocial development either using the case study, or the literature.
•There is no need to write out the case scenario again in your essay. Reference to a particular issue for the case study is all that is required. For example; if you wish to discuss toilet training, identify that toilet training is an issue raised in the case study, then go on to explain how toilet training relates to psychosocial growth and development as per previous example.
•Your discussion needs to be supported by scholarly literature, e.g. peer reviewed journal articles. See marking guide.
•See criterion 2: 37.5 marks allocated.
Describe two to three examples of factors which influence psychosocial development.
•You may wish to discuss the issues identified by the child and family health nurse in the scenario, or address some aspect of the physical (age related) development that may potentially influence psychosocial development for this age-group.
•Alternatively, you may wish to discuss non-normative events which may also impact on psychosocial development or the impact of the relationship of parents (parenting styles) which impact on psychosocial development. These may be hypothetical to the case study itself.
•You may, or may not, wish to link to the case study in your discussion of criterion 3. You do not have to link this criterion to the case study unless you wish to.
•Explain the relevance of understanding this childhood life stage to nursing and midwifery practice. You may wish to discuss this, in terms of providing support to parents in three to four sentences.
•See criterion 3: 25 marks allocated.
Review your referencing and make sure your work is fully acknowledged and your writing polished ready for submission.
•See criterion 4: 25 marks allocated.
Nursing students might like to consider:
 What is psychosocial development in children?
 Outline aspects of psychosocial development of children with examples including:
The normative transition of toilet training in building autonomy and peer interaction as building initiative – include the age range in being able to gain full continence.
Explore the role of parenting, peers, childcare socialisation and/or another aspect of psychosocial development either using the case study or from the literature.
 Note: Focus on the age group 2 to 5 years
Please write this essay in the third person, avoiding the use of the first person ‘I’ or the phrase ‘This author will…’ to refer to yourself. Find evidence in the literature to support the points you want to make, and avoid recounting personal or anecdotal experiences in your submission.
Make sure you write the discussion in formal academic language, and avoid subjective or superficial interpretations of the topics under discussion.
You are advised to work closely with the marking criteria as a guide to the construction of this essay. Supporting resources:
 Blue book (PDF 4.47 MB) (Links to an external site.) (NSW Ministry of Health, 2017). https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/kidsfamilies/MCFhealth/Publications/blue-book.pdf
 Maternal & child health primary health care policy (PDF 2.68 MB) (Links to an external site.) (NSW Ministry of Health, 2010a). https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/PD2010_017.pdf
 SAFE START Strategic policy (PDF 1.55 MB) (Links to an external site.) (NSW Ministry of Health, 2010b). https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/PD2010_016.pdf
 SAFE START Guidelines: Improving mental health outcomes for parents & infants (PDF 1.31 MB) (Links to an external site.) (NSW Ministry of Health, 2010c). https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/GL2010_004.pdf
These resources have also been provided:
Examples of helpful journal articles have been provided at the end of this guide. You are encouraged to start searching the e-journal collection and reading around your topics of interest early.
This submission is to be an essay format only. Please do not use headings in this assignment.
You are required to access and use two (2) peer-reviewed journal articles for your essay. Following is a list of supplementary references which may be of use to start your work. You can use any of these articles to inform your essay but are also encouraged to access your own peer-reviewed journal articles.
Psychosocial development (infants/children) (Criterion 2)
Baker, B., & McGrath, J.M. Maternal–infant synchrony: an integrated review of the literature, Neonatal, pediatric and child health nursing, 14 (3), 2-11.
Ball, H. (2014). Reframing what we tell parents about normal infant sleep and how we support them, Breastfeeding Review, 22 (3), 11–12.
Beebe, B., & Steele, M. (2013). How does microanalysis of mother–infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment? Attachment & Human Development, 15, 5-6, 583-602. doi:10.1080/14616734.2013.841050
Cooklin, A.R., Lucas, N., Strazdins, L., Westrupp, E., Giallo, R., Canterford, L., & Nicholson, J.M. (2014). Heightened Maternal Separation Anxiety in the Postpartum: The Role of Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Journal of Family Issues, 35 (11), 1497–1519.
Kearney, L., & Fulbrook, P. (2014) The first 18 months: Parental choices regarding their infant’s health care needs, Neonatal, pediatric and childhealth nursing, 17 (3), 17-22.
Narvaez, D., Gleason, T., Wang, L., Brooks, J., Lefever, J.B., & Cheng, Y. (2013). The evolved development niche: Longitudinal effects of caregiving practices on early childhood psychosocial development, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 759-773.
Schoenmaker, C., Juffer, F., van IJzendoorn, M.H., Linting, M., van der Voort, A., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J. (2014). From maternal sensitivity in infancy to adult attachment representations: a longitudinal adoption study with secure base scripts. Attachment & Human Development, 17 (3), 241–256. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2015.1037315
Walle, E.R. (2016). Infant Social Development across the Transition from Crawling to Walking. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1 -10. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00960
Factors influencing development (normative and non-normative) (Criterion 3)
Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D.C., & Sanchez, M. (2014). The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12, 966-714. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.02.003
Huang, J., Peters, K.E., Vaughn, G., & Witko, C. (2014). Breastfeeding and trajectories of children’s cognitive development. Developmental Science, 17(3), 452–461. doi: 10.1111/desc.12136
James, JP., Taft, A., Amir, L.H., & Agius, P. (2014). Does intimate partner violence impact on women’s initiation and duration of breastfeeding? Breastfeeding Review, 22 (2), 11-19.
Leonard, H.C., & Hill, E.L. (2014). Review: The impact of motor development on typical and atypical social cognition and language: a systematic review. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 19 (3), 163–170. doi:10.1111/camh.1205
Palmer, L., Carlsson, G., Brunt, D., & Nystrom, M. (2014). Existential vulnerability can be evoked by severe difficulties with initial breastfeeding: A lifeworld hermeneutical single case study for research on complex breastfeeding phenomena. Breastfeeding Review, 22 (3), 21-32.
Purcal, C.,Brennan, D., Cass, B., & Jenkins, B. (2014). Grandparents raising grandchildren: impacts of lifecourse stage on the experiences and costs of care. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 49 (4), 467-488.
Shrestha, S., Petrini, M.A., Shuda, A., Shrestha, S., (2015). Nepalese primiparous mothers’ knowledge of newborn care, Nursing and Health Sciences. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12193
Young, G., Gore, R., & Gorman, B. (2013) Wrapping and swaddling infants: child health nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practice. Neonatal, pediatric and childhealth nursing, 16 (3), 2-11.
Woodwood, L.J., Friesen, M.D., Raudino, A., Fergusson, D.M., & Horwood, L.J. (2013).
Intergenerational changes in the context of early motherhood. Journal of Family Studies, 19 (3), 306-314
General texts available through the library (online) or to borrow (see catalogues)
Barkway, P. (Ed.). (2013). Psychology for health professionals. Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier Australia.
[Good for theoretical material and theorists and age spans]
Gerrig, R. J. (2013). Psychology and life (20th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
[Good for theoretical material and theorists and age spans]
McMurray, A., & Clendon, J. (2014). Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice (4th ed.). Chatswood, Australia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier Australia.
[Good for general community and childhood issues/cultural issues]

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